FIFA Organizational Culture

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This research will investigate whether FIFA should change its organizational culture after every World Cup tournament. The study will introduce the research question, and discuss the significance of the research. Then, the paper will compare various literatures on the topic of ‘organizational culture.’ This is a quantitative research and the question is premised on the positivist worldview paradigm. Survey method will be the preferred research instrument of the researcher.



Abstract. 2


1.1 Purpose of the study. 4

1.2 Context of study. 4

1.3 Problem statement. 5

1.4 Significance of the study. 6


2.1 Organizational culture. 7

2.2 Characteristics of organizational culture. 8

2.3 FIFA organizational culture. 8

2.4 Conclusion. 9


3.1 Research methodology. 11

3.2 Research design. 11

3.3 Population and sample. 11

3.3.1 Population. 11

3.3.2 Sample. 12

3.4 Research instrument. 12

3.5 Procedure of data collection. 12

3.6 Validity and reliability. 12


References. 14

Appendix (Questionnaire). 15




1.1 Purpose of the study

The purpose of this research is to explore the need of FIFA organization changing its organizational culture every tournament. The aim of this study is to establish whether leaving a positive legacy will help FIFA avoid public complains and provide evidence why the World Cup had been good for the host country. This study will be used to add to the existing literatures that demand FIFA to change its culture.

1.2 Context of study

According to (Roan, 2014), FIFA’s chief independent ethics investigator called for a ‘change of culture’ at the organization. The ethics investigator insisted on greater transparency. According to studies and researches, FIFA chose Russia and Qatar to host the 2018 and 2020 World Cup, which was against the wishes of many FIFA officials. The studies again noted that former FIFA vice-president, Mohamed bin Hammam, paid bribe totaling to $3.8m to football officials in order to support the Qatari bid. Furthermore, in September 2014, FIFA rejected the report into the 2018 and 2022 World Cup bidding process submitted by Michael Garcia.

A study by (Walker, 2014) stated that world leading ethic bodies called for major changes in the way FIFA body operates. To be more specific, FIFA’s chief independent ethics investigator called for a top-down culture change at FIFA. Many ethics body in the world criticize FIFA’s investigation and adjudication process. Quoting Garcia, he said ‘FIFA operates in most parts unseen and unheard.’

Moreover, FIFA critics call for ethics overhaul in the body. The ethics of the body is weak for instance, the body’s process of investigation and adjudication is wanting. In order to ensure ethics overhaul, investigators demand Sepp Blatter, FIFA’s president, to step down. The investigators blame the leadership style of Sepp for FIFA’s predicaments.

This research will answer the following question, ‘Does FIFA organization need to change its organizational culture every tournament?’ Before answering this question, it is important to show where corporate culture is visible. It is shown in:

  • The methods used by the organization to conduct business, treat employees and the customers
  • The extent at which freedom is allowed in decision making process and development of new ideas
  • How power flows in the organization
  • The way employees are committed

1.3 Problem statement

The research will answer the following question. ‘Does FIFA organization need to change its organizational culture every tournament?

Question 1: How does organizational culture influence the public complains about FIFA?

Hypothesis 1: Organizational culture may affect the legacy of the body

Hypothesis 2: A good organizational culture may raise the status and legacy of the body

Question 2: To what extent does organizational culture allow freedom in decision making process and development of new ideas?

Hypothesis 3: The freedom in decision making process does not depend on organizational culture, but the attitudes from the stakeholders


1.4 Significance of the study

Organizational culture is a normal phenomenon in organizations. Studies indicate that organizational culture impacts on the effectiveness of organizations (Roan, 2014; Walker, 2014).  Therefore, this study will help researchers deeply understand the concept of organizational culture. Additionally, there are few studies on the subject of organizational culture. This research will add to the existing literature on the subject.

Many people would love to know how FIFA operates. They lack the resources to inform them on the processes that happen in FIFA. This study will offer them a closer look into the operations that are carried out inside FIFA.

The Study will explain in context why different organizations have distinctive cultures. In any organization, shareholders and stakeholders often develop ‘norms.’ Therefore, the paper will be beneficial in showing why organizations establish expected behavior patterns within the corporation.


2.1 Organizational culture

Organizational culture is defined as ‘ a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs, which governs how people behave in organizations (McLaughlin, 2014, p. 1).’ The author of the study argues that shareholders in organizations derive a lot of influence from the shared values and beliefs. These shared values and beliefs define how the employees perform their jobs.

Another study by Itzen defined organizational culture as ‘an organization’s expectations, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations (Itzen, 2003, p. 50).’ The author of the study argues that organizational culture often affects a firm’s productivity and performance. Employees derive guidelines on how to attend to customers, product quality, and safety from the organizational culture (Itzen, 2003).

Studies indicate that organizational culture extends to various methods used in the firm (Schabracq, 2009; Bremer, 2012; Kim S. Cameron, 2011; Kratschmer, 2013). Examples of these methods include production methods, marketing methods, and methods of creating new products. That said, it is important to note that organizational culture is unique for every corporation. It is very hard to change. However, a study by (Kotter, 2014) gave recommendations on how to change organizational culture. Kotter argues that many people do not clearly define the term ‘culture’. Additionally, he states that there are no many studies that show how culture changes. Kooter asks some questions ‘Where does culture come from? How does it change? (Kotter, 2014, p. 1)’  In his study, he argues that culture comes from the founders of the group, and they value certain things that brings success. Moreover, he states that powerful people in the organization are responsible for changes in culture. Mangers and leaders will approve new norms that bring immense success to the organization. Therefore, (Kotter, 2014) concluded that the leadership plays a bigger role in changing an organization’s culture.

2.2 Characteristics of organizational culture

A study by  (McLaughlin, 2014) listed down seven characteristics of organizational culture. They are:

  • Risk orientation: Some cultures encourages employees to take risks in new investments, for instance, innovation companies
  • Precision orientation: Cultures demand employees to be very accurate in their undertakings
  • Achievement orientation: This happens to companies that emphasizes on results, but do not know how to achieve the results
  • Fairness orientation: Some companies emphasize on how their decisions will affect the stakeholders
  • Teamwork: Culture that encourages collaboration and teamwork
  • Aggressiveness: Some cultures define how organizations should react to competitors
  • Stability: This type of culture exists in corporations that are rule oriented and bureaucratic

2.3 FIFA organizational culture

A study by (Masters, 2013) labeled FIFA’s organizational culture as ‘ugly’. The author of the study recommends change of leadership in FIFA in order to fix the culture problem. According to Masters, FIFA has experienced significant numbers of scandals in recent years (Masters, 2013).  The study named the decision of FIFA awarding the 2022 world cup to Qatar as the worst scandal ever. Studies indicate that Qatar was not supposed to be awarded the right to host the World Cup because:

  • Qatar is not a football country
  • The climate of Qatar (40-50 degrees Celsius) is not favorable to play football
  • There will be culture clashes
  • Qatar is known to abuse the rights of immigrant workers
  • Many expect the stadiums to be empty

Many organizations have called for culture change in FIFA. A research by (Walker, 2014) indicates that FIFA has been led by the same people for decades. The author recommends for change of the body’s leadership. However, Walker admits that it would be very hard to change the culture currently in FIFA (Walker, 2014).

An article from (ABC, 2015) quoted FIFA presidential candidate Prince Ali bin al Hussein blasting FIFA’s ‘culture of intimidation.’ The article concluded that many people in the world want to see new reforms in FIFA. Ali was quoted saying. ‘And if we are talking about transparency, I would like to see at least before the election a public debate including the incumbent so that everybody know across the world what our positions are (ABC, 2015, p. 1).’ Prince Ali was definitely sure the people will view Mr. Blatter as a non-reformist.

2.4 Conclusion

Organizational culture often affects a firm’s productivity and performance. Employees derive guidelines on how to attend to customers, product quality, and safety from the organizational culture. For FIFA to be successful there is need for a new organizational culture. Many organizations have labeled the culture of FIFA using bad descriptions, such as ‘ugly’, ‘bad’ and such. Therefore, from the above literature review, it is evident FIFA needs to work on changing their organizational culture.


3.1 Research methodology

This will be a quantitative research. The researcher will examine the relationship amongst variables that can be measured on an instrument. The researcher will analyse data using statistical procedures.

The study will answer the question, ‘Does FIFA organization need to change its organizational culture every tournament?. This question is influenced by various philosophical ideas and worldviews. Additionally, this question is premised on the positivist worldview paradigm. Researches indicate that, in positivist paradigm, researchers have to provide hypotheses.

3.2 Research design

The researcher of this study will focus on survey research. He will employ non-experimental design in order to elaborate the numeric description of the main research question. Moreover, the researcher will test the hypotheses and he will collect data to either support or refute the hypotheses.

3.3 Population and sample

3.3.1 Population

The population of this researcher will be made up of FIFA employees, professors in ethical studies, lawyers, and various stakeholders of organizations. All the respondents will be of the age of 18 years and above.

The researcher will select a sample representative of the population to be included in the study.

3.3.2 Sample

The researcher will use random selection when selecting the participants. To be more specific, the researcher will employ non-probability sampling in the study.

To select the respondents, the researcher will use the quota sampling process. The researcher will approach each respondent, where the respondent was asked to answer questions based on the research instrument.

3.4 Research instrument

The researcher will collect data using structured interviews. There will be written questionnaires for the respondents. The questionnaires will be made up of closed questions. This will ensure accuracy of data collected and easy processing of data.

3.5 Procedure of data collection

The researcher will visit offices of the respondents in order to interview them.

3.6 Validity and reliability

To ensure external validity, the researcher will undertake the study in organizations, where the respondents were approached to answer the questionnaire.

To ensure internal validity, the researcher will use structured interviews that have close-ended questions.

To ensure reliability, the researcher will prepare a pilot interview.




The researcher will use inferential statistics to analyze the data collected. Inferential statistics will allow the researcher make generalizations for the whole population using the sample.

The researcher will use the independent t-test to either accept or refute the hypotheses. The researcher will compare the mean of one sample with the mean of another sample in order to test the existence of a statistically significant difference among the samples.

The researcher will use the p-value to note the probability of seeing the difference that would be found in two samples if there will be no difference



ABC. (2015). FIFA presidential candidate Prince Ali bin al Hussein slams ‘culture of intimidation’. ABC news.

This article explains what FIFA presidential candidate Prince Ali bin al Hussein thinks about the culture of FIFA. The thoughts are summarized, and a brief discussion included in the article. This is a quantitative study and is a helpful source for getting an overview of FIFA’s culture. Key words include ‘culture’ and ‘leadership’


Bremer, M. (2012). Organizational Culture Change: Unleashing Your Organization’s Potential in Circles of 10. On Demand Publishing, LLC-Create Space.

The author of this quantitative study presents an investigation on the organizational change. His study covers a wide range of subjects in the stated subject. However, the lack of deeper analysis weakens the findings in this study. Key words include ‘organizational culture’ and ‘leadership’



Itzen, C. (2003). Gender, Culture and Organizational Change: Putting Theory into Practice. New York: Routledge.

This quantitative study explains the theory of gender, culture and organizational change. The theory is summarized, and a brief discussion for the theories included. The authors provide a strong conclusion that explain the theories. Key words include ‘gender’ and ‘organizational  culture change’


Kim S. Cameron. (2011). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework. Chicago: John Wiley & Sons.

The author of this qualitative research explains the ways of diagnosing and changing organizational change. The ways are summarized and a brief discussion included of the implications going forward for organizations. This book was useful in explaining FIFA’s organizational change. Key words include ‘organizational culture change and ‘values’


Kotter, J. (2014). The Key to Changing Organizational Culture. Forbes

. This is a Forbes article, and presents the methods of conducting organizational change in firms. Information from this article covered on culture and organizational change. It was useful in explaining organizational change. Keywords include ‘organizational culture change’ ‘culture’ and ‘leadership’


Kratschmer, P. (2013). Organisational Culture Is Highly Resistant to Change – Discuss. New York: GRIN Verlag.

This quantitative study explained why it is very had to change an organizational culture. The author’s data covered a wide range of factors that make it hard to change a culture. Key words include ‘organizational culture change’ and ‘culture’


Masters, J. (2013). FIFA has ‘ugly’ culture, claims ex-English FA chief David Triesman. CNN.

This is an article from CNN and it explains why ex-English FA chief labeled FIFA’s organizational culture as ‘ugly’. It gives reasons why many organizations demand for cultural change in FIFA. Key words include ‘ugly culture’ and ‘FIFA’


McLaughlin, J. (2014). What is Organizational Culture? – Definition & Characteristics. Education portal.

The author of this journal presents the definition of organizational culture, and its characteristics. However, the article fails to explain how organizational change can be effected effectively. Keywords include ‘organization culture’ and ‘leadership’


Roan, D. (2014). Fifa has to change its culture – ethics investigator Michael Garcia. BBC, 2.

This BBC article gives a detailed explanation on why FIFA has to change its culture. The author provides evidence as to why his argument is correct. The author argues that FIFA is lacking good leadership. Keywords include ‘ethics’ ‘FIFA’ and ‘culture’


Schabracq, M. J. (2009). Changing Organizational Culture: The Change Agent’s Guidebook. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

This book was crucial in explaining the need for cultural change. The author presented a theoretical framework that was useful in explaining why leadership is crucial in changing the organization’s culture. Keywords include ‘organizational culture’


Walker, L. (2014). Ethics chief calls for greater transparency, culture change at FIFA. DOHA news, 1-5.


This news article explains why the former FIFA ethics chief called for greater transparency. The information is summarized, and the author gives a brief explanation of his findings. Keywords include ‘transparency’ and ‘culture change’

Appendix (Questionnaire)



The Questionnaire

  1. Do you live in Qatar?
  2. Yes
  3. No
  4. Are you aware of FIFA?
  5. Yes
  6. No
  7. Do you love FIFA’s management?
  8. Yes
  9. No
  10. Are you an advocate of cultural change?
  11. Yes
  12. No
  13. Are you employed?
  14. Yes
  15. No
  16. What is your net monthly income per month (before deductions)?
  17. Less than $10,000 per month
  18. More than $10,000 per month
  19. Do you have any children?
  20. Yes
  21. No
  22. Are you married or do you have a partner that you live with
  23. Yes
  24. No
  25. Are you aware of FIFA management style?
  26. Yes
  27. No
  28. Will you elect back the current FIFA president?
  29. Yes
  30. No
  31. What is the first thing that come in your mind when you see FIFA in advertisements?____________________________

Section B

Please Circle One to indicate how you feel about the statement

1= Strongly Disagree

5= Strongly Agree

  1. I am happy and satisfied with the services offered by FIFA

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. FIFA did the right thing awarding World Cup to Qatar

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. I never see wrongdoings in FIFA awarding World Cup to Russia and Qatar

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. FIFA is right ethically

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. I know what to expect from FIFA

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. I love FIFA

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. It is very important to me to see FIFA changing its culture

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. FIFA never disappoints

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. I trust FIFA services

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. I trust FIFA to offer the best services

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. FIFA values its customers

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. I will be a fan of FIFA for a very long time

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree

  1. I would recommend FIFA’s organizational culture to my firm

Strongly Disagree 1_2_3_4_5_Strongly Agree











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